A lot of technological changes have happened in various fields including software and hardware industry. All these changes have led to a significant progress in most sectors and lift modernisation. Today, you can safely travel from one floor to another in a metal box with just the push of a button or switch. Lifts, or elevators, have become mandatory in buildings with more than four floors. Lifts make thing easy and convenient for people, especially for those who are physically disabled. In this article, you will find information on the lift, how it works and different types of lifts.
What’s a Lift?
In simple terms, think of it as an electric box primarily used for transporting people as well as goods among the floors in tall buildings. The lifts work with the help of electrical motors that are also used to drive counterweight system cables over a hoist. In other cases, hydraulic fluid is pumped to move a cylindrical piston that acts as a jack and moves the lift car.
Lifts are used in a variety of industries including manufacturing, agriculture and others. There are many different types of lifts and these are categorised on the basis of their use. The modern multi-storey buildings can’t be constructed without a lift, especially when building a wheelchair ramp isn’t practical.
How Does a Lift Work?
As far as the working principle behind a lift is concerned, it works similar to the pulley system. In this system, a pulley is used for drawing water from a well. The design of a pulley system involves the use of a bucket and a rope over a wheel. The bucket is connected to the rope and this rope then passes over the wheel making it easy to get water out of the well. The modern lifts work on the same principle. The biggest difference between these two working mechanisms is that modern lifts are pulled with the help of a sophisticated machine that is capable of handling the lift’s load, whereas pulley systems require manual operation.
Simply put, an elevator might be defined as a metal box in a variety of shapes connected to a strong metal rope. This metal rope is connected to the elevator through a sheave. This sheave acts like a wheel in the pulley system and it latches onto the metal rope. This pulley-like system is operated through a motor. When you turn on the switch, the motor activates and the elevator car starts going up or down or comes to a halt.
An elevator is made of a variety of components or parts. Some of the main components include an electric motor, a speed control system, shaft, cabin, rails, drive unit, doors, buffers, and safety device.
Various Lift Types
There are many different types of lifts. Some of the common examples include hydraulic elevator, freight elevator, passenger lift, cable driven or traction elevator, machine room less elevator, residential elevator, pneumatic elevator, and building lift, among others.
Hydraulic Elevator: As the name implies, this lift is powered by a piston that moves in a cylinder. This piston can be moved by pumping hydraulic oil in the cylinders. An electrical valve can be used to control the flow of oil.
Pneumatic Elevator: These lifts use an external cylinder. It is a self-supporting and crystal-clear cylinder. It is made up of modular sections that easily fit into each other. The top of this cylinder is covered with steel which ensures complete shutdown of air circulation through suction valves and inlets. There is a lift car that runs within the cylinder. The top part of the cylinder surface is made of controllers, valves and turbines that are used for controlling the movement of the elevator.
Traction or Cable Driven Elevator: These are the most popular types of lift. These include steel cables and hoisting ropes. These ropes run over a pulley system connected to a motor. These elevators are available in geared as well as gearless traction type configuration. In this design, a number of hoisting and wire cables are connected to the top of elevator car where these pass through the sheave at one end and are connected to a counterweight at the other end. This counterweight moves up and down on the guide rails.